In 2010, the EU fined LG Display 215 million euros for its participation in the LCD pricing system.  Other companies have been fined a total of 648.9 million euros, including Chimei Innolux, AU Optronics, Chunghwa Picture Tubes Ltd. and HannStar Display Corp.  LG Display stated that it was considering imposing the fine.  If the price of a new supplier is less than the normal offer price of the company, it may be an agreement between existing companies between the resources offered. Fas Russia Found Cartel In The Market of Orthopedic Products By entering into an anti-competitive agreement, six wholesale orthopaedic companies set up and maintain the highest price of products sold FAS Russia found Trives Trade LLC, MedExpert LLC, Optomed LLC, Maltri LLC, ORTO LLC (…) The other manager agrees and the gas stations decide together to increase the prices from $100 to $200. Since there are no other options, consumers are forced to inject gas for $200. If all suppliers decide to increase prices at the same time, this goes beyond the framework of input cost changes. If the price control agreement is sanctioned by a multilateral treaty or is concluded by sovereign nations as opposed to individual companies, the agreement can be protected from legal action and criminal prosecution. That is why OPEC, the global oil cartel, has not been successfully prosecuted or prosecuted under U.S.
cartel law and abuse of dominance. The Authority has imposed fines of 93 million euros on an agreement in the ham and sausage sector – The producers concerned (“cold meat producers”) have worked together to buy slices of ham in slaughterhouses at lower prices and/or to increase the prices of (…) Spire Healthcare, a private health care provider, and six ophthalmologists have been fined for their role in facilitating and organising the pricing of preliminary consultations between various advisers at a Spire hospital in northern England. Whereas individual advisers (…) A defendant can argue that there was no agreement, but if the government or a private party makes a simple price-fixing agreement, there is no defence. Defendants cannot justify their conduct by the fact that prices are reasonable to consumers, necessary to avoid fierce competition or stimulate competition. Economic liberals believe that price-fixing is a voluntary and consensual activity between the parties, which should be free from state coercion and state interference.